Eureka County was formed on March 1, 1873. This area of Nevada had previously been a part of Lander County. Although mining discoveries in the county date back to 1864, it wasn't until a few years later that the rush to Eureka (town) was on. One of the initial 1864 discoverers was a man named G.J. Tannehill. His cabin still stands in the town of Eureka today. The photo will be included in the photo section on the Eureka town page. 1869 saw a population of 100 residents in Eureka town. By 1870, the population was estimated at 2,000 residents. Eureka was becoming a major mining hub for Nevada. Residents believed that Austin was too far to travel for county business. Eureka town came the county seat in 1873 when the county was formed. Eureka town has remained the county seat to this day. Eureka town thrived for many years, reaching a peak population of 9,000 residents in 1878. Although Eureka County faded when the mines at Eureka declined in the late 19th century, the town never died. Revivals in the area have occurred. Today, Eureka is still an important mining town in Nevada. Outside of mining, Eureka County is located in the Northern Nevada hub of cattle ranching. Eureka County also grows some of the most nutrient rich alfalfa hay in the United States. If you are a Nevada historical junkie like I am, you need to take the historic walk of the town. They offer a brochure in kiosks in town. From there, you walk or drive along and check off the landmarks. There are a couple of places to eat and stay in town. Eureka is one of the most historic mining towns in Nevada. The population of Eureka County is currently 1,855 residents according to the 2020 U.S. Census. The population of Eureka town was estimated at 462 residents according to the 2020 U.S. Census.